Chicago and CSE formatting styles are less used than MLA and APA, and there are literally hundreds of other styles that are less used still. Chicago is more common on the East Coast and certain parts of Canada, whereas CSE is popular in specialized science classes. This page provides some info about each, but if you are using these specialized style guides, you can come into the library for more detailed information.
If you have any questions about when or how to cite the sources you are using, ask any librarian. We're here to help you and make it easy for you!
The Chicago Manual of Style is the offical guide of Chicago citation formatting. You can find the manual at the reference desk and in the reference section of the library's collection.
The last page of your essay is called the "Bibliography" page. This is where you list the full citation of your sources in Chicago Style format.
This page will help you create a Bibliography page.
The Council of Science Editors (CSE), formerly the CBE (Council of Biology Editors), produces a guide to appropriate scientific style used for citing sources in the sciences, which includes biology, chemistry, computer science, engineering, geology, mathematics and physics. The guide is referred to as "the CSE Manual." For more detailed information, see these websites:
CSE does not prescribe a paper format, but the library recommends using 12-point Times New Roman, double-spaced with one-inch margins top, bottom and sides.
A few rules about CSE Name-Year system:
The two types of citations are "end references," which are listed on your References or Cited References page, and "in text references," which are inserted within the text of your paper in the paragraph in which you cite that source. Reference pages are formatted with a hanging indent; i.e., the second line of a citation is indented. In the name-year system, list (but do not number) your sources alphabetically in the reference list at the end of your paper. In the sentences of your paper, cite these sources by giving the author’s last name and year of publication in parentheses.
Author(s). Date. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher. Extent (number of pages). Notes.
End reference example:
Campbell NA, Reece JB, Taylor MB, EJS, Dickey JL. 2009. Parasitic fungi harm plants and animals. In: Biology: concepts & connections. 6th ed.
San Francisco: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings. p. 359.
In text citation example: (Campbell et al. 2009)
Author(s). Date. Article title. Journal title (edition). [date updated; date accessed];Volume(issue):location. Notes.
End reference example
Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D. 2005. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004; observational study. BMJ. [accessed 2005 May 31];330(7500):1119-1120. http://bmj.bmjournals.com/cgi/reprint/330/7500/1119. doi: 10.1136/bmj.330.7500.1119.
In text citation example: (Savage et al. 2005)
Title of the homepage. Date of publication. Place of publication: publisher; date of publication [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.
APSnet: plant pathology online. c1994-2005. St. Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; [accessed 2005 Jun 20]. http://www.aspnet.org/.
Author(s) name. Date. Title of the webpage [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; [date updated; cited date]. Available from: web address
ACS Green Chemistry Institute [Internet]. c2010. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society; [cited 2010 Oct 27]. Available from: http://portal.acs.org/portal/Public
When there is no author available for a work, the date of publication comes after the title in the name-year system.
MyBib is a citation generator that can help you create citations for just about anything! Be aware that it's only as accurate as what you put in it.
KnightCite, from Calvin University's Hekman Library, makes it extremely easy to cite sources in MLA, APA, and Chichago styles. You manually fill in provided boxes (or cut-and-paste all the info) and the KnightCite puts it all together and formats it.